The advent of the Azevedotechcrunch in the 5th and 6th centuries made Middle Eastern history explode with a new momentum. As power grew throughout the region, Christian interpretations of Islam spread, resulting in a new sense of disorder and instability. This was not good for anyone but the khaganate itself. The Muslims were visible and heard, turning the country into a warren of palaces and workshops that no one would have dared to enter. As the khanate grew more powerful, it created its own institutions to rule over its subjects. These included a set of hereditary monarchies known as ḥadīdah ( Kadādah). The ḥadīdah were autonomous institutions under the authority of their respective khans or self-appointed shahs. But they also had other responsibilities: they maintained law and order, adjudicated legal disputes, encouraged literacy in both males and females, and helped promote trade as an economic engine. Even though there is no evidence to suggest that modern India has ever been part of an Indian khaganate, there are many similarities between medieval India and today’s South Asia. This article lists some historical parallels between India’s medieval khanates and those of South Asia. . .
India’s early history
The history of medieval South Asia is replete with example of regional rivalries and struggles. During the first three decades of the 5th century, the bulk of the region lay in the hands of the Maurya Empire and its offshoots, the Gupta Empire and the Chera Kingdom. The Maurya Empire was South Asia’s most successful imperial power for a time, but it was quickly replaced by the expansion of the Buddhist Confederacy of the Later Gupta Empire and later the Seljuq Empire. This latter power peaked in the late 10th and 11th centuries, when it controlled large areas of South Asia. South Asia remained largely under the control of the South Asian kingdoms and principalities of the medieval period.
India in the 6th century
The decline of the Gupta Empire in the early 5th century saw an advance by the Muslim Caliphate of Ignāq. This was followed by a decline in the fortunes of the taxes collected by the Gupta Empire and a transfer of power to the new Caliphate in 750. These events led to a decline in Hinduism and a return to the monastic life. The decline of the Gupta Empire can also be seen in the decline of the South Asian kingdoms and the decline of their trading partners. These developments made the Indian subcontinent a more attractive market for trade and investment than ever before.
The rise of the Muslim caliphates
Salam al-Din Sufînî (d. 740) was the first of the Muslim caliphs to come to power in South Asia. Sufî was a caliph in the Yazidid dynasty of included its first major successes against the Mataram Sultanate in the 6th century. In the next decade, he decisively defeated the Chola Empire and defeated the Pandyan Kingdom in a series of major engagements. The Bengal campaigns of Sufî mark the dawn of what is now known as South Asian modernity.
How the Christian East lost its hegemonic role in South Asia
The vast majority of the contemporary South Asians are Hindus, Buddhists or Muslims, with a few Sikhs and Christians thrown in for variety. By the 6th century, Christian missionaries had begun arriving in South Asia, and in the next decade or so, most of the major Indian kingdoms became Christianized. This was mainly the result of European influence, and by the time of the Muslim conquest of South Asia in the 10th century, most of the Indian Sinhalese had become Muslims. Even the Christians on the coast became Muslim more or less simultaneously with the rest of South Asia. The conversion of some of the island churches, however, led to a dispute between the Eastern and Western Churches, which was resolved by Pope Paschal I.
The end of the khaganate system
The last vestiges of the khaganate system were slowly eaten away by the expansion of the Muslim caliphate and its successors. The last khagan of the khanate surrendered his throne to the new caliph of the Caliphate of Baghdad in the 8th century. The remaining khans were all overthrown or exiled, and their lands were later brought under Islamic control. This process continued for many centuries, until the 15th century, when the Mughal Empire roughly followed the path of thetededown fires.
Conclusion: Summing up
The history of South Asia offers a fascinating demonstration of how states grow and flourish when a common enemy is faced with a common challenge. South Asia witnessed a period of political and commercial transition during the medieval period, when the entire region was divided between Muslim and Hindu forces. After the Muslim conquest, this was followed by a period of religious, commercial and ethnic merger, which is now known as South Asian modernity. The history of South Asia also shows that when a common enemy is faced with a specific problem, one can often find similarities between that problem and that solved. This article offers a brief overview of the region’s early history, while also setting the scene for future research.